Manual Fundamentals of Physical Geography

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In the mids Lomonosov began working in the Department of Geography, Academy of Sciences to conduct research in Siberia. They showed the organic origin of soil and developed a comprehensive law on the movement of the ice, thereby founding a new branch of geography: glaciology.

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In on his initiative was founded Moscow University where he promoted the study of geography and the training of geographers. In he was appointed director of the Department of Geography, Academy of Sciences, a post from which would develop a working methodology for geographical survey guided by the most important long expeditions and geographical studies in Russia.

The contributions of the Russian school became more frequent through his disciples, and in the nineteenth century we have great geographers such as Vasily Dokuchaev who performed works of great importance as a "principle of comprehensive analysis of the territory" and "Russian Chernozem ". In the latter, he introduced the geographical concept of soil, as distinct from a simple geological stratum, and thus found a new geographic area of study: pedology.

However, this great geographer also contributed to the paleogeography through his work "The climates of the geological past" which is considered the father of paleoclimatology. Russian geographers who made great contributions to the discipline in this period were: NM Sibirtsev , Pyotr Semyonov , K.

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Glinka , Neustrayev , among others. The second important process is the theory of evolution by Darwin in mid-century which decisively influenced the work of Ratzel , who had academic training as a zoologist and was a follower of Darwin's ideas which meant an important impetus in the development of Biogeography.

Another major event in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries took place in the United States. William Morris Davis not only made important contributions to the establishment of discipline in his country but revolutionized the field to develop geographical cycle theory which he proposed as a paradigm for geography in general, although in actually served as a paradigm for physical geography.

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His theory explained that mountains and other landforms are shaped by the influence of a number of factors that are manifested in the geographical cycle. He explained that the cycle begins with the lifting of the relief by geological processes faults, volcanism, tectonic upheaval, etc. Geographical factors such as rivers and runoff begins to create the V-shaped valleys between the mountains the stage called "youth".

During this first stage, the terrain is steeper and more irregular.


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Over time, the currents can carve wider valleys "maturity" and then start to wind, towering hills only "senescence". Finally, everything comes to what is a plain flat plain at the lowest elevation possible called "baseline" This plain was called by Davis' "peneplain" meaning "almost plain" Then the rejuvenation occurs and there is another mountain lift and the cycle continues. Although Davis's theory is not entirely accurate, it was absolutely revolutionary and unique in its time and helped to modernize and create a geography subfield of geomorphology.

Its implications prompted a myriad of research in various branches of physical geography. In the case of the Paleogeography, this theory provided a model for understanding the evolution of the landscape.

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For hydrology, glaciology, and climatology as a boost investigated as studying geographic factors shape the landscape and affect the cycle. The bulk of the work of William Morris Davis led to the development of a new branch of physical geography: Geomorphology whose contents until then did not differ from the rest of geography. Shortly after this branch would present a major development.

Some of his disciples made significant contributions to various branches of physical geography such as Curtis Marbut and his invaluable legacy for Pedology, Mark Jefferson , Isaiah Bowman , among others. The compilation of Edrisi marks an era in the history of science. Not only is its historical information most interesting and valuable, but its descriptions of many parts of the earth are still authoritative. For three centuries geographers copied his maps without alteration.

The relative position of the lakes which form the Nile, as delineated in his work, does not differ greatly from that established by Baker and Stanley more than seven hundred years afterward, and their number is the same. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The study of processes and patterns in the natural environment. This article is about the academic discipline. For the peer-reviewed journal, see Physical Geography journal. Physiography may also refer to geomorphology. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified.

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Main article: List of geographers. This also includes an analysis of how each process impacts upon water quality issues.


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The second section is concerned with the measurement and analytical assessment of important hydrological parameters such as streamflow and water quality. It describes analytical and modelling techniques used by practising hydrologists in the assessment of water resources. The final section of the book draws together the first two parts to discuss the management of freshwater with respect to both water quality and quantity in a changing world.

Tim Davie is Chief Scientist at the Canterbury Regional Council which controls natural resource management, including water resources, in New Zealand's largest region. Buy at Local Store. Enter your zip code below to purchase from an indie close to you.